40 U.S.C. § 5104 United States Capitol Buildings and Grounds Unlawful Activities
(a) Definitions.-In this section-
(1) Act of physical violence.-The term “act of physical violence” means any act involving-
(A) an assault or other infliction or threat of infliction of death or bodily harm on an individual; or
(B) damage to, or destruction of, real or personal property.
(2) Dangerous weapon.-The term “dangerous weapon” includes-
(A) all articles enumerated in section 14(a) of the Act of July 8, 1932 (ch. 465, 47 Stat. 654); and
(B) a device designed to expel or hurl a projectile capable of causing injury to individuals or property, a dagger, a dirk, a stiletto, and a knife having a blade over three inches in length.
(3) Explosives.-The term “explosives” has the meaning given that term in section 841(d) of title 18.
(4) Firearm.-The term “firearm” has the meaning given that term in section 921(3) 1 of title 18.
(b) Obstruction of Roads.-A person may not occupy the roads in the United States Capitol Grounds in a manner that obstructs or hinders their proper use, or use the roads in the area of the Grounds, south of Constitution Avenue and B Street and north of Independence Avenue and B Street, to convey goods or merchandise, except to or from the United States Capitol on Federal Government service.
(c) Sale of Articles, Display of Signs, and Solicitations.-A person may not carry out any of the following activities in the Grounds:
(1) offer or expose any article for sale.
(2) display a sign, placard, or other form of advertisement.
(3) solicit fares, alms, subscriptions, or contributions.
(d) Injuries to Property.-A person may not step or climb on, remove, or in any way injure any statue, seat, wall, fountain, or other erection or architectural feature, or any tree, shrub, plant, or turf, in the Grounds.
(e) Capitol Grounds and Buildings Security.-
(1) Firearms, dangerous weapons, explosives, or incendiary devices.-An individual or group of individuals-
(A) except as authorized by regulations prescribed by the Capitol Police Board-
(i) may not carry on or have readily accessible to any individual on the Grounds or in any of the Capitol Buildings a firearm, a dangerous weapon, explosives, or an incendiary device;
(ii) may not discharge a firearm or explosives, use a dangerous weapon, or ignite an incendiary device, on the Grounds or in any of the Capitol Buildings; or
(iii) may not transport on the Grounds or in any of the Capitol Buildings explosives or an incendiary device; or
(B) may not knowingly, with force and violence, enter or remain on the floor of either House of Congress.
(2) Violent entry and disorderly conduct.-An individual or group of individuals may not willfully and knowingly-
(A) enter or remain on the floor of either House of Congress or in any cloakroom or lobby adjacent to that floor, in the Rayburn Room of the House of Representatives, or in the Marble Room of the Senate, unless authorized to do so pursuant to rules adopted, or an authorization given, by that House;
(B) enter or remain in the gallery of either House of Congress in violation of rules governing admission to the gallery adopted by that House or pursuant to an authorization given by that House;
(C) with the intent to disrupt the orderly conduct of official business, enter or remain in a room in any of the Capitol Buildings set aside or designated for the use of-
(i) either House of Congress or a Member, committee, officer, or employee of Congress, or either House of Congress; or
(ii) the Library of Congress;
(D) utter loud, threatening, or abusive language, or engage in disorderly or disruptive conduct, at any place in the Grounds or in any of the Capitol Buildings with the intent to impede, disrupt, or disturb the orderly conduct of a session of Congress or either House of Congress, or the orderly conduct in that building of a hearing before, or any deliberations of, a committee of Congress or either House of Congress;
(E) obstruct, or impede passage through or within, the Grounds or any of the Capitol Buildings;
(F) engage in an act of physical violence in the Grounds or any of the Capitol Buildings; or
(G) parade, demonstrate, or picket in any of the Capitol Buildings.
(3) Exemption of government officials.-This subsection does not prohibit any act performed in the lawful discharge of official duties by-
(A) a Member of Congress;
(B) an employee of a Member of Congress;
(C) an officer or employee of Congress or a committee of Congress; or
(D) an officer or employee of either House of Congress or a committee of that House.
(f) Parades, Assemblages, and Display of Flags.-Except as provided in section 5106 of this title, a person may not-
(1) parade, stand, or move in processions or assemblages in the Grounds; or
(2) display in the Grounds a flag, banner, or device designed or adapted to bring into public notice a party, organization, or movement.
18 U.S.C. § 1752 Restricted Buildings or Grounds
18 U.S.C. § 1752 prohibits certain conduct at a “restricted building” or “grounds” (this is defined to include locations where a “person protected by the Secret Service,” such as the Vice President, “is or will be temporarily visiting”).
Conduct prohibited at restricted buildings or grounds includes: (1) knowingly entering or remaining without lawful authority; (2) knowingly engaging in disruptive conduct, or impeding ingress or egress, “with intent to impede or disrupt the orderly conduct of Government Business or official functions;” and (3) knowingly engaging in “any act of physical violence against any person or property.”
Violations of § 1752 are punished by fines and up to one year of imprisonment. The conduct becomes a felony and a maximum sentence of up to ten years applies if the restricted grounds offense also involved a deadly or dangerous weapon or firearm, or resulted in significant bodily injury.
18 U.S.C. § 1361 Vandalism of Government Property
18 U.S.C. § 1361 prohibits willful injury to federal property. Ordinarily, a violation of this statute is a misdemeanor subject to fines and a maximum prison term of one year. However, if the damage to federal property exceeds $1,000, the offense is treated as a felony, with increased fines and up to ten years of imprisonment.
18 U.S.C. § 641 Theft of Government Property
18 U.S.C. § 641 makes it a crime to steal “any record, voucher, money, or thing of value of the United States or of any department or agency thereof.” If the property stolen is worth less than $1,000, the offense is a misdemeanor that is punished by a maximum prison term of one year. Offenses involving property of greater value are felonies and punished by up to ten years of imprisonment.